These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity.
Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells.
Ag-NPs functionalized with three different monosaccharides and ethylene glycol were synthesized and characterised.
Oxidative stress and toxicity was evaluated by protein carbonylation and MTT assay, respectively.
Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses - most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature.
A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge.
Cellular uptake was evaluated by confocal microscopy and ICP-MS.
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CPPs are rich in basic amino acids such as arginine and lysine and are able to translocate over membranes and gain access to the cell interior.
They can deliver large-cargo molecules, such as oligonucleotides, into cells.
A series of studies conducted in the 1980’s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake.
Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis.