La très forte pression de l'urbanisme de ces dernières années est à l'origine de l'augmentation de la vulnérabilité face aux phénomènes naturels.
Nor is its agriculture helped by controversy over the lingering effects of now-unused pesticides. Guadeloupe effectively became French in 1635, well before Nice, Alsace or Corsica. By 1787, there were 90,000 slaves for 14,000 white people.
This was but the latest in a series of natural disasters that has smacked the locality for centuries.
Half the island had to be evacuated when La Souffrière volcano erupted in 1976.
The latter instructed him to return to Tepeyac Hill, and ask the lady for a miraculous sign to prove her identity.
That same day the third apparition occurred when Diego returned to Tepeyac and, encountering the Virgin Mary reported the bishop's request for a sign; she consented to provide one on the following day (December 11).